Terms Glossary

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AACAll Aluminum Conductor, Conductor made of aluminum, term used generally for bare conductors.
Abrasion resistanceAbility to resist superficial abrasion under a controlled test method.
Accelerated ageingProcess to apply temperature, voltage, etc. higher than the normal values of operation in order to observe the deterioration level on samples.
AcceleratorSubstance that increases the speed at which a chemical reaction is developed under specific conditions.
Acceptance or Qualification testsThese are performed in order to verify the manufacture’s ability to provide equipment or components that meet approved characteristics.
ACREB gSelf supported multi-pair telephone cable (figure 8 or ASPB), for aerial installation, with isolation and PE cover, aluminum belt electrostatic shield and integral galvanized steel bracket, from 10 to 300 ps., to be used at a secondary network.
ACSRAluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced, Aluminum Cable with steel central reinforcement.
ACVTelephone cord for aerial connection (2 X 18), two hard copper conductors gage 18 AWG and black PVC isolation, at a flat formation.
AdmittanceMeasures how easy it is for a conductor to face the power flow (contrary to impedance).
AEICAssociation of Edison Illuminating Companies.
Aerial cableAir suspended cable, on poles or structures.
AgeingIrreversible process that changes characteristics after being exposed to operation conditions for certain time term.
Air core cableTelephone cable with an empty core in which the gaps between pairs are occupied by air.
ALChemical symbol for Aluminum.
AlloyMetal formed by the combination of two or more metals to obtain some specific characteristics.
Alternating CurrentElectrical current generally in a senoidal form, with a continuously changing direction, the change frequency is expressed in Hertz (cycles per second), and is 60 Hz. In Mexico.
AluminumMetal produced by electrolytic process where aluminum oxide is separated from its aluminum and oxygen components.
AlumoweldRegistered Trademark of Copperweld steel corp. for conductor formed by two metals, steel in the middle and aluminum on the surface, covering the steel.
AmpacitySee: Current Conduction Capacity.
AmpereElectrical Current Unit. An Ampere is the current that flows through a resistance in an ohm to which a Volt voltage is applied.
ANCEAsociacion de Normalización y Certificación (Standarization and Certification Association of the Mexican Independent Body which standardizes, certifies and verifies products).
AnnealingElimination of mechanical efforts in metal conductors through thermal treatment on a metal to re-orient its clear structure and reach certain temper characteristics (gradual heating or cooling).
Annular type conductorCircular section cable with wires around a core generally not conductor.
ANSIAmerican National Standards Institute.
AntioxidantSubstance that delays or avoids the degradation of other material exposed to air oxygen or peroxides.
ArmorCable’s mechanical protection. This can be formed by a metallic tube, a layer of helicoidally arranged wires or hearts of steel, helicoidally arranged steel strips, or metal interlock armor (Aluminum or Steel).
Armored, cableCable with a mechanical protection (Armor).
ASTMAmerican Society for Testing and Materials.
Audio frequencyRange of audible frequency by the human ear, generally, from 20 to 20,000 Hz.
AWGAmerican Wire Gauge, standard used to design the wire or electrical cable gage (Diameter).
AWMAppliance Wiring Material, UL designation under specification 758.
B & S GaugeOriginal name of the AWG Standard.
BedProtecting layer made of a soft material like jute, located on cables under the metal armor. This can also be extruded thermoplastic material.
Belt CableMultiple-conductor with an isolation layer on the set of insulated conductors.
BILBasic Impulse Level. This is the system’s capacity measure for excessive voltages resulting from atmospheric discharges or connection and disconnection operations.
Black smokeCoal or graphite charges to pigment external cable coatings to be installed outdoors.
BPSDigital transmission speed, measured in Bits Per Second.
Branches with a bow-tie formPhenomenon that appears in the isolation of a cable. It generally has symmetrical form and it is originated in a cavity or a polluting agent and grows in two different ways.
Breakdown electric tensionTension on which a breakdown discharge is identified through or on the isolation surface.
BridgeMeasuring circuit operating by balancing four impedance through which the same current flows:

  • Wheatstone – for oh-mic resistance.
  •  Kelvin – for low ohmic resistance.
  •  Schering – for capacitance, power factor, dielectric constant.
ButylSynthetic rubber, polymer of Isobutylene that contains small amounts of Isopropene. When vulcanized, this was used as electric isolation.
C.A.T.V.Community Antenna Television System.
CableGroup of wires. These can be bare or insulated.
Cable dielectricPart of the cable that isolate the conductor from other conductors or conductor or grounded parts. (See: Isolation).
Cable with no-fire propagation characteristicCable manufactured with specially designed materials to avoid a continuous combustion, and prevent the fire propagation.
Cable, Figure 8Aerial cable in which conductors and steel support are container in an integral coating in the shape of an 8.
CapacitanceRatio between the electrostatic charge between two conductors and the potential difference required to keep that charge.
Cathode copperHighly pure copper, refined through an electrolysis process and used in electrical conductors.
Cathodic protectionMetal corrosion reduction or prevention, it causes the cathode to protect the metal by using a direct current circuit.
CavityThis is an interstice on an isolation not containing base isolating material. This may have gas or liquid and a potential point to form absorbency.
Characteristic ImpedanceImpedance connected to the transmission line outlet to get a infinite length.
Charge currentTransitory current required to establish the potential difference in a capacitive system is determined by the capacitance in said system.
Charge factorRatio on the average charge value (electric power) corresponding to a determined time term and the maximum charge in the same term in an electrical system.
ChargesInert substances added to thermoplastic or thermoset materials to get certain characteristics.
Circular MilUnit for measuring the transversal section of electric conductors in the AWG system. One Mil circular corresponds to the area of a circle with a milli-inch diameter.
CoatingThermoplastic or thermoset mechanic protection located on the cable core.
Coating Percentage (%)Percentage of a cable surface coated by a wire mesh.
Coaxial cableCable generally used in radiofrequency. It is formed by two cylindrical conductors with a common shaft separated by a dielectric, the second conductor usually has the form of a twisted mesh and it is grounded.
Code of colorsCode for identifying circuits in a multi-conductor cable, usually along with pieces of colors.
Combined Concentric WireConcentric wire with a circular section. External coating wires have a bigger diameter than those in the internal layer. The diameter of wires must be within a tolerance of ± 5% of the nominal value of the diameter of wires used in the typical corresponding concentric cable.
Compact Concentric CableConcentric cable with circular section made of circular section or preformed wires that are compacted for a smaller external diameter.
ComponentThermoplastic or thermoset material used as isolation or coating and formed by two or more ingredients.
Compressed Concentric CableConcentric cable with circular section on which one or more cable layers with 7 or more wires are slightly compressed to reach a external diameter of at least 97% of the corresponding normal concentric cable.
Concentric wiringCentral conductor, surrounded by one or more layers helicoidally arranged in a fixed structure.
ConductanceThe capacity of a conductor to allow an electrical charge, reciprocal to resistance.
ConductivityCapacity of material to conduct electricity, usually expressed as copper conductivity percentage ( IACS ).
Conductivity, percentage ofThe material’s conductivity expressed in percentage of the soft copper’s conductivity.
CapacitanciaLa relación entre la carga electrostática entre dos conductores y la diferencia de potencial requerida para mantener esa carga.
ConductorWire or combination of wires not isolated, adapted to transport electric current. These can be insulated or bare conductors.
ConduflexRegistered Trademark of Conductores Monterrey S.A. de C.V. for flexible cables and cords.
ConduitTube through which insulated electric cables or wires are installed (see duct).
ConnectionCable that goes from the Electrical Power Company’s Line to the User’s installation.
ConnectorMetal device with proper electric conductance and mechanical resistance. This is used to connect the ends of two or more cable conductors or as a terminal conductor for a monopolar conductor (to give physical and electric conductivity to both conductors). This can be one of the following types: weldable, fusible, mechanical, and compression or indentation.
ContactsParts of a conductor in contact with the conductor thorough which there is current flow.
ContaminantAny foreign material in the isolation.
Continuity testVerification to determine if the current flows throughout the conductor.
Continuous vulcanization (CV)Process using heat and pressure to vulcanize an isolation, coating or shield, immediately after being extrude on a conductor.
Control cablesMultiple conductor cable designed to operate equipments remotely through control signals.
CopolymerComponent resulting from the polymerization of two different monomers.
Copper-clad-steelCopper coating steel wire.
CopperweldRegistered Trademark of Flexo wire div. for Copper-clad-steel conductors.
CordConductor formed by different wires, providing a lot of flexibility.
CorrosionDestruction in the surface of a metal due to chemical reactions.
CPChlorosulphonated polyethylene. Vulcanized elastomeric polymer generally used as low tension isolation or external coating.
CPEChlorinated Polyethylene. Vulcanized elastomeric polymer generally used as low tension isolation or external coating.
Cross-linkedPermanent chemical joint between thermoplastic polymer chains.
Cross-linked operation(XLPE) Thermoset material resulting from the polyethylene vulcanization in the presence of a catalyst. Cable isolation in dry or wet places, in aerial or directly buried installations, at a temperature of 90°C for normal operation, 130°C in overcharge and 250°C in short circuit.
Cross-linksProcedure to complete intermolecular permanent joints among thermoplastic polymers with long chains through chemicals or electron bombardment. Generally the characteristics of thermoset materials are better than those of the original thermoplastics.
Cross-talkEnergy interference between conductors caused by electromagnetic effects (using communication cables).
Crown effectDischarge resulting from the air ionization around the conductor caused by a gradient with a higher potential to certain critical level.
Crown resistanceThe time the isolation can last without breaking certain ionization value.
CSA(Canadian Standards Association), similar to UL in the United States.
CuringTProcess that through heat application (through water steam or hot nitrogen), accelerates certain chemical reactions in materials that makes them act as rubber (See Vulcanization).
Current Conduction Capacity(Ampacity) Maximum current an insulated conductor can have without exceeding thermal limitations on isolation and coating.
Current Conduction CapacityMaximum current intensity that can circulate through an insulated conductor without exceeding the temperature limits for isolation and/or coating.
Decibel (DB)Unit used to express the level of energy.
Delta tangentEnergy loss factor due to isolation, factor commonly used in magnet wires.
Dielectric constantAlso known as Permittivity, this is the characteristic of a dielectric that determines the amount of stored electrostatic energy per volume unit and per potential gradient unit.
Dielectric effortThe dielectric effort on a material is the maximum potential difference it can take without breaking. This value depends on the thickness and test conditions.
Dielectric lossesRate at which the electric power in a dielectric is transformed into heat when this is subject to a variable electric field.
Dielectric Phase AngleThe phase angle between the sinusoidal alternating voltage applied to a dielectric product and the current component which has the same frequency.
Dielectric rigidityPotential gradient at which the dielectric experiences an electric failure or breakdown.
Dielectric rigidity testTest with which the cable is subject to a higher voltage for certain period of time to assure it works under operation conditions.
Direct currentElectrical current flowing in one single direction.
Directly Buried CableCable designed to be installed underground, in direct contact with the soil.
Dissipation FactorTangent of a dielectric loss angle. This is approximately equivalent to the same power factor.
Double extrusionSimultaneous extrusion in two different materials on one single cable using two extrusion machines.
DrainBare conductor generally used in communication or metal shielded control cables allowing continuous electricity and an easy grounding.
DRSPrimary and secondary distribution system for residential areas using underground cables.
DRSSecondary residential distribution, see URD.
Dry vulcanizationProcess during which vulcanization is completed without using water steam to apply heat and pressure, instead, this uses nitrogen under pressure.
DuctPipes installed underground on trays or other means in order to install on them electric cables, these can be plastic, metal or asbestos.
Duct BankSet of underground channels formed by one or more ducts joining two points of the system.
E.I.AElectronic Industries Association.
Effort relieving coneElement used to relieve electrical efforts in terminals or shielded cable joints.
ElastometerThermoset macromolecular material that normally can be extended two time its normal size and get back to its original shape (similar to rubber).
Electric AbsorbancePhenomena that appear in the isolation and consists of permanent paths in the form of branches, resulting from partial discharges produced by voltage stresses of alternating, direct or impulse current.
Electric wiring systemSystem exclusively designed to contain and sep together different electric conductors.
Electrical Isolation (Cables)Component isolating the conductor from other conductors or from other conducting or grounded pieces.
Electrochemical AbsorbancePhenomena that appear in the isolation, resulting from the application of voltage stresses in the presence of a liquid.
Electrode holding cableFlexible copper cable with PVC, CP, CPE, Neoprene or TPE isolation. This is used for feeding the electrode on welding, by joining the welding machine to the clamp holding the electrode.
ElectrolysisElectro-chemical effect produced by two different materials connected through an electrolyte, creating small potential differences caused by the oxidation of one of the materials (electrodes).
ElongationPercentage increase in length of a material subjected to tension and breaking under controlled conditions.
Energy or Power CableInsulated conductor able to conduct massive amounts of electric power.
EPREthylene Propylene Rubber, thermoset synthetic rubber with good electrical, thermal and crown effect resistant characteristics.
EPRI(Electric Power Research Institute) Organization for the development and management of projects that improve production, distribution and usage of electrical energy in USA.
Extruded isolationDielectric material applied through an extrusion process.
ExtrusionElastomeric or plastic material application process used as isolation or cable coating, due to the pressure exercise with the endless screw turning around a cylindrical chamber.
FailureAbnormal phenomena in any part of the system alternating the operation condition of the same reducing or preventing normal operation.
Fault currentCurrent flowing through an isolation subjected to an uniform electric potential.
FeederSet of conductors originated at the main distribution center feeding one or more secondary distribution centers or any combination of both.
Field testsTests performed on cable system – accessories after the installation, as an acceptance test.
FillingMaterial used to occupy air gaps in telephone cables’ core.
Filling cableTelephone cable whose core is filled with a material that prevents the entrance of moisture.
Flame resistanceMaterial’s ability to avoid the flame propagation once the energy source is removed.
Flat meshFlat twisted conductor used to ground the metal shield in a high tension cable terminal.
FormaconRegistered Trademark of Conductores Monterrey S.A. de C.V. for Magnet Wire with formal polyvinyl isolation.
G-GCHeavy duty flexible cable normally used in mines, of 2 kV. EPR isolation and CPE coating, manufactured in 3 rounded shaped conductors, two neutral and one insulated conductor for ground control.
GageTerm used to refer to the wire and cable measuring.
Geometrical FactorParameter used to determine Ampacity, and it is determined based only on relative dimensions and the geometrical configuration of conductors and the cable isolation.
GigaNumeric prefix denoting one billion (10^9).
GroundIntentional or accidental conducting connection between one circuit or electric equipment and ground or any conductor used instead.
Ground connectionElectric connection between one circuit and the physical ground in order to protect the system from electric discharges.
HalogensSeries of elements in the periodic table of column 7A, elements used for manufacturing non-flammable materials that produce corrosive and toxic gases when burning. These elements are Flour, Bromine, mud y Chlorine.
Hard copperCable resulting from a fiber drawing process (cold drawing) + Cu half hard.
Hertz (Hz)This term refers to the frequency and it is equivalent to cycles per second.
Hi PotHigh Voltage Field Test performed on cables in order to evaluate the integrity of the isolation after the installation and connection.
High tensionCables with a tension higher than 1,000 volts.
HPNCord with two parallel conductors integrally insulated with Neoprene.
HypalonRegistered Trademark of Dupont for the Chlorosulphonated Polyethylene component.
IACSInternational Annealed Copper Standards: International Standard for soft or annealed copper created by the International Electrotechnical Commission. Measure used as a conductivity Standard. Soft copper at 20 °C has a 100 % of conductivity or 100 IACS.
ICCInsulated Conductors Committee. IEEE Committee in charge of investigating and carrying out studies about insulated electrical conductors.
ICEAInsulated Cable Engineers Association.
ICeEVTelephone cable with two or three tinned copper conductors, individual polyethylene and external PVC coating for internal connection to the telephone rosette.
ICeVVMultipair telephone cable, tinned copper conductor gage 24 AWG with isolation and PVC coating to be used indoors for interconnecting telephone equipments.
ICVVMultipair telephone cable, copper conductor gage 26 AWG with isolation and PVC coating to be used indoors for interconnecting telephone equipments.
IECInternational Electrotechnical Commission.
IEEEInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
Impedance (Z)Total opposition a circuit has to the alternating current flow. This is a combination of resistance, capacitance (capacitive reactance) and inductance (inductive reactance). This is measured in ohms.
Impulse Isolation Basic Level(NBA) These are the levels mentioned as impulse peak voltage, with a normalized wave not higher than 1.5 x 40 – microseconds.
InductanceA circuit characteristic that opposes the current flow change, causing a delay in the current with respect to voltage. This is measured in Henrys.
Interlock armorMechanic protection for cables. This is formed by aluminum or steel strips on which every turn is secured forming a strip lap in such a way they cannot slip one over another, but allowing the set to be flexible.
IonizationAny process producing positive or negative ions or electrons from atoms or neutral molecules.
ISOInternational Standards Organization.
IsolationMaterial offering a great resistance to the current flow. It is also known as dielectric.
Isolation level 100% (Category I)This is used when the system is provided with protection devices that eliminate ground failures as soon as possible, always before one minute.
Isolation level 133% (Category II)This is applied when it is not possible to meet the category I failure elimination requirements (Level 100%) but it is possible that the section with the failure Hill deenergized in a term not exceeding one hour.
Isolation level 173% (Category III)This is used in systems where the time required to deenergize the section with the ground failure is indefinite.
Isolation resistanceOpposition to the current flow of an isolating material. Ratio between applied voltage and circulating current. It is generally expressed in Megaohm or Megaohm-Kilometer.
IWCInside Wire Cable, Multipair telephone cable with isolation and PVC coating to be used indoors.
Joining beltBelt used to hold together all the different elements that form the cable to be processed.
Joining spacingAxial length of the described helix to join 2 or more gages.
JointConnection and reconstruction of all the elements that form an insulated power cable mechanically protected within a single coating or casing.
JointAssembly of two or more insulated conductors twisted together to form a cable.
kCMAerial unit in the AWG system equivalent to 1000 Circular Mils. Formerly designed as MCM.
kiloNumerical prefix denoting thousands (10^3).
kVAKilovolt-amper, power in a alternating current system. Actual power is equivalent to apparent power multiplied by the power factor.
Laminar IsolationFibrous dielectric material or film shaped material or a combination of both, constituted by isolation layers superposed and generally impregnated and/or soaked in a dielectric component.
LanLocal Area Network. Term used to define a local data communication network.
Lan 3Local network communication cables classified as level 3. This means that they are able to transmit at a 20 Mbps speed.
Lan 5Local network communication cables classified as level 5. This means that they are able to transmit at a 100 Mbps speed.
LapThis is the amount of tape on topo f the other usually measured in %.
LossLoss of energy in an electrical device, generally expressed in Decibels per Kilometer.
Loss factorThis is the result from the multiplication of the dissipation factor by the dielectric constant for an insolating material.
LossesEnergy that is dissipated without being previously used.
LSTerm defined in NOM – 063 – SCFI indicating that elements marked as “LS” meet the no fire propagation, low smoke emission and low acid gas content tests. These tests are defined in the same NOM – 063 – SCFI.
Magnetic fieldSeries of manifestations in the adjacent space of a moving electrical charge.
ManholeSee : Registry.
Maximum operation temperature in the conductorMaximum temperature reached in typical charge cycles of power and lighting electrical systems.
Maximum overcharge temperature in the conductorThis is the temperature reached at any point of the network under the condition of emergency, in a time and frequency previously determined. This temperature is applicable to an average of various years, in a term not exceeding 36 hours a year for cables from 5 to 46 kV and no more than 72 hours a year for cables 69 kV and higher, for a maximum total of 3 terms in any 12 consecutive months.
Maximum tension in a systemMaximum tension value observed under normal operation conditions at any time or place in the system.
MbpsDigital transmission speed measured in thousands of bits per second.
MeggerRegistered Trademark of James G. Biddle Company for the isolation resistance measuring equipment.
MeshGroup of metal filaments or cylindrically linked fibers to form a mechanical or electrostatic protection.
MhoUnit of electric conductivity, ohm’s reciprocal.
MicroNumeric prefix denoting a 10^-6 millionth.
Mils (Mil)Inch thousandth contraction, English measure unit.
Minimal Bending Radius (installation)Minimal bending radius value at which a cable can be bent during the installation.
Monoconductor cablesThese are cables formed by one single insulated conductor.
MP-GCHeavy duty triphasic cable frequently used in mines, from 5 to 25 kV. XLPE or EPR isolation and PVC or CPE coating respectively, two bare neutral and one insulated conductor for ground control used in fixed installations.
MTWUL cable classification with thermoplastic isolation: Machine Tool Wire.
MufaDevice used to seal a cable end and provide an insulated outlet for conductors.
MulticonductorCable formed by two or more individually insulated conductors which are joined to form a set protected by an external coating.
Multiple-conductor cablesThese are cabled formed by 2 or more conductors, individually isolated; identified by fillings if necessary to get a circular section, joining belt and common external coating.
Mutual capacitanceCapacitance between two conductors on one cable when the rest of the conductors are connected and grounded.
NanoNumeric prefix denoting one thousandth-millionth 10^–9.
National Electric Code (NEC)North-american Standarization Association issuing cable installation regulations and its selection and use.
NBSNational Bureau of Standards of the United States.
NEMANational Electrical Manufacturers Association in the United Status.
NeopreneSee : Polychloroprene.
NeutralCircuit element receiving electric system tensions. This is generally grounded.
NOM – 001 – SEDENorma Oficial Mexicana (Mexican Official Standard), NOM – 001 – SEDE, Relative to installations used for supplying and using electrical power.
NOM – 063 – SCFINorma Oficial Mexicana (Mexican Official Standard), NOM – 063 – SCFI, Electric Products – Conductors – Safety Requirements.
Normal Concentric CableConductor made of a central core formed by one or more wires and covered by one of more helicoidally arranged wire coatings, resulting in a circular section cable.
OF CablePressure self-contained cable with impregnated paper isolation on which the pressurization means is a low viscosity oil.
OhmElectric resistance unit.
Operation temperatureMaximum temperature under which a cable can work for a long period of time without damaging the isolation physical properties.
Operation voltageMaximum voltage at which a cable may operate for a long term without damaging the isolation.
OSHA(Occupational Safety and Health Act) Federal Act in USA #91-596 since 1970 covering all the issues regarding safety at he work place.
Oxygen ratePercentage of required oxygen in a gas mixture to support a material combustion.
OZONEOxygen active molecule that can attack some materials used as electric isolations.
Partial dischargeType of discharge located in a part of an insulated system between two conducting parts, resulting in a transitory gaseous ionization, when the tension gradient exceeds a critical value.
Partial discharges extinction tensionThis is the tension at which partial discharges exceeding a specified intensity, under certain conditions, are stopped. When tension is gradually decreased from a value exceeding the initiation tension.
Partial discharges initiation tensionThis is the lowest tension at which partial discharges exceeding the specified intensity, under certain conditions, are identified. When the tension applied to the object being tested is gradually increased from an inferior value where these discharges are not present.
PESee : Polyethylene.
Peculiar effectPhenomenon consisting of a not uniform distribution of current, which tends to concentrate on the external surface of the conductor and it is caused by the variation of current with respect to the same conductor’s time.
PermittivitySee: Dielectric Constant.
PES(Power Engineering Society). IEEE Chapter, related to the analysis, study and development of tests and equipment that belong to the Electric Power Engineering.
Pilot WireAuxiliary insulated conductor in a power cable used to connect remote measurement instruments or to operate devices from a long distance.
PlastifierAgent added to plastics to improve flow and process and reduce fragility.
PolychloropreneThermoset synthetic elastometer. This is used as isolation for cables of up to 2 KV and mainly as a protecting coating.
PolyconRegistered Trademark of Conductores Monterrey S.A. de C.V. for XLPE insulated power cables, at a low, medium and high tension ( 600 V to 138 KV).
Polycon-EPRRegistered Trademark of Conductores Monterrey S.A. de C.V. for EPR insulated power cable, at a low, medium and high tension (600 V to 138 KV).
PolyethyleneThermoplastic material based on ethylene repetitive units. This has excellent dielectric characteristics like: high isolation resistance, low dielectric constant and low dielectric losses at all frequencies. There are 2 basic types: Low and high density polyethylene, both for 75°C of normal operation.
PolymerComponent with a high molecular weight and a structure usually represented by a chemically joined small repetitive unit (monomer).
PolyolefinAny polymer or monomer from the ethylene hydrocarbon’s family.
PolypropyleneThermoplastic similar to polyethylene but with slightly better electric characteristics.
Polytermacon / AIRegistered Trademark of Conductores Monterrey S.A. de C.V. for Magnet wire, with isolation based on polyeserimides and an amide-imide coating.
Polyvinyl Chloride(PVC) Thermoplastic synthetic component. This is a material mainly used as isolation for up to 1,000 Volts and as protecting coating.
Portable conductorFlexible cable used to supply energy to small mobile equipments.
POTSee : SPT-0, SPT-1, SPT-2 y SPT-3.
Power FactorRegarding the active power and the apparent power in a system.
Power factorIn an alternating current electric system, this is the cosine of the phase displacement angle between the voltage and the current.
Power GradientThis is a vector perpendicular to equipotential surfaces and with a magnitude that corresponds to the potential variation speed.
Propagation speedSpeed in which a signal travels through a cable, expressed as percentage of the light speed.
Proximity effectPhenomena consisting of a not uniform distribution of current on the transversal section of a conductor caused by the current variation with regard to time in a close conductor.
PSDNeutral, duplex, triplex and quadruplex multiple conductor cable with polyethylene isolation for aerial distribution for 600 V and 75 °C.
PSIPounds (force) per Square Inch, English unit for pressure, 1 psi is equivalent to 0.0703 kg/cm3.
Pulling elementDevice joined to the free end of a cable allowing the application of the required force to install the cable in ducts.
Pump flat cableFlat triphasic flexible cable with polyethylene isolation and PVC coating for 600 V, 75°C. This is used to feed pumps and engines with a deep well.
PVCSee : Polyvinyl Chloride.
Quadruplex CableSet of four monoconductor cables joined together helicoidally.
RAD ®From spanish acronym Recubrimiento Altamente Deslizable ®. Exclusive Viakon overlay with low coefficient of friction, applied to electric conductors. RAD makes wire installations easier and more efficient.
Rain conePorcelain or other weather proof material inverted hopper, used to increase the arching distance.
ReactanceOpposition to the alternating current flow caused by Capacitance or Inductance.
RegistrySee : Visit registry.
Resistance to FatigueMetal material resistant to crystallization causing the wire to break when bended cyclically.
RG Type CableCoaxial cable to be used in radiofrequency, formed by a central conductor, metal shielded isolation (usually mesh) and external coating.
RHCable for copper structure with oil resistant thermoset isolation for 600 V, 75 °C in a dry environment.
RHHCable for copper structure with oil resistant thermoset isolation for 600 V, 90°C in a dry environment.
RHWCable for copper structure with oil resistant thermoset isolation for 600 V, 75 °C in a dry or damp environment.
Ring (Traction Eye)Device that can be placed on the cable in order to pull the cable during the installation.
RoHSThe Directive on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment 2002/95/EC (commonly referred to as the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive or RoHS), restricts the use of six hazardous materials in the manufacture of various types of electronic and electrical equipment: Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, Hexavalent chromium, Polybrominated biphenyls and Polybrominated diphenyl ether.
Room temperatureTemperature in the area.
Routine testsTests made on equipments or their components in order to verify the quality constancy.
RUSRural Utilities Service, Federal Organization in the USA supporting local power supply companies.
SPortable cord for heavy duty with thermoset isolation, two or more conductors with fillings and thermoset coating 600 V.
SAESociety of Automotive Engineers.
SCREBMultipair telephone cable for underground installation with PE isolation and coating and aluminum belt electrostatic shield from 10 to 2400 ps. For external plant installations in the main network.
Sealed conductorCopper or aluminum cables, usually in a concentric structure, with interstices filled by a material that prevents water from entering.
Sectoral type conductorConductor with a transversal section in the shape of a part of a circle.
Segment type conductorConductor formed by different sectors of a circle slightly isolated from each other to give a circular section.
Self-extinguishableCharacteristic of a material, in which the flame is extinguished when removing the power source.
Semi-insulated cableMedium tension cable without isolation shield, therefore these are considered not-insulated cables, with a reduced thickness generally used in aerial installations in areas where there is a risk for the cable to be in contact with tree branches.
Semiconducting shieldPolymeric material layer used to standardize and confine the electrostatic fields in medium and high tension cables.
Separable insulated connectorsIsolated devices to facilitate the separation or power cable connection.
SeparatorMaterial used to obtain a physical spacing between a cable’s elements or to provide a mechanic protection.
SHD-GCConduflex triphasic cable for mines from 5 to 25 kV. with twisted mesh on force conductors, two bare neutral and one insulted conductor for ground control.
ShieldMetal element of the cable covering the core in order to confine electrostatic fields.
Shield on ConductorIn medium and high tension power cables this is the semiconductor layer applied to the metal conductor to produce a smooth surface and be in contact with the isolation. Its task is to standardize the electric field.
Shield on isolation.In medium and high tension power cables this is formed by two elements: Semiconductor shield and metal or electrostatic shield.
Short circuitElectric current flow through an accidental connection between the energized conductor and any metal structure with a different potential.
SJOJunior hard service, Thermoset isolation portable cord with oil resistant elastomeric coating, 300 V, 90 °C.
SJTJunior hard service thermoplastic, Thermoplastic isolation portable cord and coating 300 V, 60 to 105 °C.
SOHeavy duty portable cord with thermoset isolation, Two or more conductor with filling and oil resistant thermoset coating 600 V, 90 °C.
SockDevise designed to allow a temporal joint of 2 cables or for pulling conductors without requiring using traction eyes or rings.
Soft copperCopper subject to a thermal annealing treatment to eliminate the cold process effects.
SoldaconRegistered Trademark of Conductores Monterrey S.A. de C.V. for magnet wire with polyurethane isolation.
Soldacon-NylonRegistered Trademark of Conductores Monterrey S.A. de C.V. for magnet wire with polyurethane isolation and Nylon coating.
Spaced aerial coaxialCoaxial cable where the air is essentially dielectric, this is usually formed with a helicoidal spacer on the conductor.
SpacingLength required for completing a twist in an axially measured cable.
Spark testTest in the cable manufacturing process consisting of the application of a high voltage whenever there are little imperfections (discontinuities) in the isolation.
Specific GravityMaterial density ratio (mass per volume unit) and water density expressed as a fraction.
Spiral concentric cableCable for secondary aerial connection formed by a central conductor, PVC isolation, bare copper wire concentric conductor and black polyethylene external coating.
SPT-1Portable cord formed by two parallel conductors with integral thermoplastic isolation, 300 V, this can have a grounded conductor.
SPT-2Portable cord formed by two parallel conductors with integral thermoplastic isolation, 300 V, this can have a grounded conductor.
SPT-3Heavy duty portable cord to be used in refrigeration or air conditioning systems, formed by two parallel conductors with integral thermoplastic isolation, 300 V, this can have a grounded conductor.
SS\r\nHighly flexible cable to be generally used as electrode holding cable.
STHeavy duty portable cord, similar to type S, but with isolation and thermoplastic coating structure, 600 V, 60 to 105 °C.
Stability FactorVariation of the Dissipation Factor, in a percentage, with respect to time.
Steam vulcanizationProcess during which vulcanization is completed with water steam under pressure.
Styren –Butadiene (SBR)Synthetic material that was used as electric isolation in low tensions.
Submarine cableInsulated conductor designed to continuously operate on water, which generally has an additional mechanic protection (armor).
SVTCord for household vacuums, light duty, thermoplastic isolation and coating 300 V, 60 °C, this can have a third grounded conductor.
System Nominal TensionSystem’s designation tension to which certain operation conditions are referred.
Tank testsDielectric rigidity test performed in cables, which are submerged in a tank full of water and the voltage is applied between the water and the conductor.
TemperThermal or mechanic treatment applied on metals or alloys to control their characteristics, like the softness level. Term used to refer to the hardness level in electric conductors usually there are three levels: Hard, half hard and soft.
Tension effortEffort (Force per Area Unit, Kg-f / cm2 ) required to break a sample.
Termacon NylonRegistered Trademark of Conductores Monterrey S.A. de C.V. for magnet wire with polyester isolation and Nylon coating.
TerminalDevice providing control or relief to electric efforts present in the cable’s isolation when interrupting and removing the shield on the isolation. This can provide additional insulated leak distance and air-tightness.
Terminal shoeConnecting device to which the electric conductor is joint by pressure or welding. This connects said conductor to any other part of the electric system.
Test tensionTension that must be able to support a cable without flames or breakdown discharge when applied under specific conditions.
Thermal shockTest used to determine a material’s ability to support fast changes in temperature (heating and cooling) and keeps its physical characteristics within the specified range.
ThermocontractileMaterial that shrinks when it is subject to heat.
ThermoplasticMaterial that gets softer when it is heated and solid when it is cooled. This process can be performed several times provided the material limits are nor exceeded.
ThermosetMaterial that once cured (vulcanized) does not suffer any deformation when subject to heat.
ThermostableSee: Thermoset.
THHNConstruction cable with PVC isolation and Nylon coating, classified for 600 V and 90°C in a dry environment.
THHWIndividual cable or wire, used when creating a PVC thermoplastic isolation, 600 V, 90 °C in a dry environment and 75°C in a wet environment.
THHW-LSSee: THHW and LS, meets NOM – 063.
ThreadWire, filament, thin solid conductor.
THWIndividual cable or wire. This is used for creating a PVC thermoplastic isolation, 600 V, 75 °C, in dry and wet environments.
THWNConstruction cable with PVC isolation and Nylon coating classified for 600 V and 75°C in dry and wet environments.
Traction elementSee: pulling element.
Transversal Section AreaThe transversal section in a wire is the area perpendicular to the wire’s axis; in a cable or cord this area is the sum of each of the wires that form it.
Triple ExtrusionProcess to simultaneously extrude three layers of different materials on one single cable.
TriplexPower cable formed by three individual conductors, twisted together without a general coating.
Triplex cableGroup of three monoconductor cables helicoidally joined together. Sometimes it has an additional grounded conductor.
Tube Type CablePipe). Cable subject to pressure with impregnated paper isolation on which the pressurization jeans container is a metal pipe. The pressurization means can be oil or gas.
UHFUltra High Frequency, Television transmission frequency from 300 to 3,000 Mhz.
ULUnderwriters Laboratories. Not lucrative North American Organization operating certification systems for electric and electronic products.
URDUnder-Ground Residential Distribution, type of cable used to distribute electric energy to residential areas by using underground cables.
VFHVery High Frequency, Television transmission frequency from 30 to 300 Mhz.
Vinicon-LSRegistered Trademark of Conductores Monterrey S.A. de C.V. for power cables for the low tension structure (600 V).
Visit registryClosed area usually underground located on the duct’s path and an entry on the top to arrange cables and service them.
VoltElectromotive force or electric tension measuring unit.
VoltagePotential difference commonly used to refer to the electromotive force.
Voltage breakdownSet of phenomena related to a failure in the isolation under the effect of an electrical field including a voltage burden and current flow.
Voltage regulationMaximum variation value (usually in %) a charge can take during the voltage supply, for previously established conditions.
VulcanizationProcess through which a polymer is converted into a thermoset.
VW-1No flame propagation test, method approved by UL.
WFlexible cable for heavy duty used in mines, 2 kV. EPR Isolation and CPE coating, manufactured in 1, 2, 3 and 4 conductors, in a rounded or flat shape.
Wall thicknessCable isolation or coating thickness.
WattElectric power unit (equivalent to volts X amperes).
Wave lengthDistance measured in the direction of the propagation in teh form of an electric wave, between two successive points having the same phase and amplitude.
WireMetallic conductor, solid cylinder, with a shape of extended rod or filament, used for transmitting energy or electrical signals. It can be bare or isolated.
Wire enamelInsulated wire with one or more thin layers of enamel. Also known as Magnet wire.
Wire for connectionsWire for connections formed by copper wires tinned copper with PVC isolation and twisted on pairs, quartettes, quintets, and sextets, used on connections of telephonic centrals or telecommunication equipment.
Wire for distributorCord for distributor, formed by two or three tinned copper wires isolated individually with PVC and joined by connections (bridges) on the distributor and telephonic distribution boxes.
WiringHelicoidally joined with two or more bare or insulated conductors.
Wiring directionSide direction in which the group of conductors of a layer turns around the cable core.
Wiring lengthDistance on the shaft of an helicoidal element turn.
WPWeather Proof, cable for aerial connection and distribution, weather proof, with black polyethylene isolation.
XHHWIndividual structure cable with XLPE isolation 600 V, 90 °C in a dry environment, 75 °C in a wet environment.
XLP or XLPECross-linked polyethylene, polyethylene with chemical additives forming permanent links in the polyethylene’s molecular structure chains, this causes the polyethylene to look like a thermoset.
Zero Halogen, CableCable made of materials free of halogens.

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